What is Society ?
A wave of social relationship or relation is termed as Society. In our native language we commonly termed this society as Samaj . Let’s understand the concept of society with reference to it’s smallest unit that is , family.
Each and every individuals are connected by two kinds of relationships :
- Blood Relatives or Consanguineal Relatives
- Marital Relatives or Affinal Relatives
There are 8 kinds of Dyadic relationship in a Nuclear Family
What are the characteristics of a Society ?
- Society consists of people: Society is composed of people. Without the students and the teachers there can be no college and no university. Similarly, without people there can be no society, no social
relationships, and no social life at all.
- Mutual Interaction and Mutual Awareness: Society is a group of people in continuous interaction with each other. It refers to the reciprocal contact between two or more persons. It is a process whereby men interpenetrate with other members of society. It means that individuals are in continuous interaction with other individuals of society. The limits of society are marked by the limits of social interactions.
- Society depends on likeness: The principle of likeness is essential for society. It exists among those who resemble one another in some degree, in body and in mind. Likeness refers to the similarities. People have similarities with regard to their needs, works, aims, ideals, values, outlook towards life, and so on. Just as the ‘birds of the same feather flock together’, men belonging to the same species called ‘Homo sapiens’, have many things in common. Society, hence, rests on what F.H. Giddings calls consciousness of kind. “Comradeship, intimacy, association of any kind or degree would be impossible without some understanding of each by the other and that understanding depends on the likeness which each apprehends in the other. Society in brief, exists among like beings and likeminded beings.
- Society rests on difference too- Society rests on difference too: Society also implies difference. A society based entirely onlikeness and uniformities is found to be loose in socialites. If men are exactly alike, their social relationships would be very much limited. There would be little give-and-take, little reciprocity. They would contribute very little to one another. More than that, life becomes boring, monotonous and uninteresting, if differences are not there.
- Cooperation and Division of Labour – Similarly at home work is divided and shared by the father, mother and children. Division of labour leads to specialization. Division of labour and specialization are the hallmarks of modern complex society. Division of labour is possible because of co-operation. Society is based on co-operation. It is the very basis of our social life. As C.H. Cooley says, ‘co-operation arises when men realize that they have common interests’. It refers to the mutual working together for the attainment of a common goal.
- Society implies interdependence – Social relationships are characterized by interdependence. Family the most basic social group, for example, is based upon the interdependence of man and woman. One depends upon the other for the satisfaction of one’s need. As society advances, the area of interdependence also grows. Today not only individuals are interdependent upon one another, but even, communities, social groups, societies and nations are also interdependent.
- Society is dynamic – Society does not depend on a single culture , norms , regulations or livelihood processes. If we consider rural people as a member of rural society then it doesn’t mean that every rural people should have a common outlooks.
- Social Control – Social Institutions are the best means of controlling individuals as it the best of social control.